FUCHSIA
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Below are a few examples of fuchsia cd rom book chapters that cover a variety of fuchsia aspects.
Please, note that the hot words that (on the Fuchsia CD ROM) will pop up additional texts and/or additional photos to enlighten the text of the chapter(s), are not active on this web page. Of course, they are active on the Fuchsia CD ROM itself.


THE GENUS FUCHSIA
The genus Fuchsia has originated more than 50 million years ago, but has been discovered only a few hundred years ago in South-America by the French mendicant/botanist Charles Plumier (1646-1706).By order of the French king Louis XIV, Plumier went three times to South-America to search for plants (among which the quinine tree) and to make drawings of them.In South-America, Plumier found a gracefully flowering shrub and named it: Fuchsia Triphylla flore coccinea. It was a trifoliate fuchsia with scarlet red flowers, and has been described in Plumier's book titled: Nova Planetarium Americanum Genera (1703).In honour of Dr. Leonart Fuchs (1501-1566), who worked as a medical professor and as a botanist at the University of Tübingen (Germany), Plumier named the genus of the plant: Fuchsia. Plumier and Fuchs were not contemporary, Fuchs lived more than 100 years earlier. Fuchs has never seen a fuchsia and could never have imagined that a group of plants would bear his name.Besides in South-America, botanical fuchsias are also native to New-Zealand and Tahiti. Fuchsias mainly grow in mountainous areas. At present, approximately a 100 botanical species are known.In separate Chapters, the aspects Naming and the corresponding aspect Manner of Writing for fuchsias are further elucidated in this CD ROM book.


CLASSIFICATION
Botanical fuchsias are parts of the plant family Onagraceae. Other members of this family are Evening Primrose and Willow-herb.Approximately, a number of 100 botanical fuchsia species are known. In addition, approximately 20,000 hybrids and cultivars have been developed.The position and classification of fuchsias can be schematically presented in a number of layers. The top layer comprises the main division. In the lower lying, intermediate layers plant groups to which the fuchsias belong are presented in an increasingly detailed fashion. Finally, in the bottom layer the individual species are housed.The botanical classification is presented here below.MAIN DIVISION, DIVISION, CLASS, SUB CLASS, ORDER, FAMILY, GENUS, SECTION, SPECIESAn example is given for F. procumbens.Within the family Ongraceae, the genus Fuchsia is a separate, stand alone group of plants.Fuchsia species can be crossed with each other.In separate Chapters in this CD ROM book, the aspects Naming en the corresponding aspect Manner of Writing of fuchsias are further elaborated.


NAMING
Botanical sorts (species)The name of a (botanical = wild / not crossed) fuchsia sort (species), for example Fuchsia magellanica, is composed of the (italicized) genus name Fuchsia and the (italicized) (botanical) species name magellanica, thus resulting in: Fuchsia magellanicaIf botanical species exhibit further differences within the species itself, an (italicized) variety name can be added (e.g. var. molinae).The complete name then becomes: Fuchsia magellanica var. molinaeThe word Fuchsia is abbreviated to F. so that the name becomes:F. magellanica var. molinaePlants with differing characteristics within a species can also be grouped into a subspecies instead of denoted as a variety. An example is F. microphylla subsp. hidalgensisHybrids and cultivarsThe name of a fuchsia hybride or of a fuchsia cultivar (e.g.: 'Cambridge Louie') is composed of a (non-italicized) hybrid or cultivar name between quotation marks such as in 'Cambridge Louie'.The (maximal 3) words in the hybrid or cultivar name each start with a capital ('Cambridge Louie').The genus indication Fuchsia is not mentioned in the cases of fuchsia hybrids and cultivars. The complete name remains: 'Cambridge Louie'.In practice, a cultivar variety name does not occur in the case of fuchsia cultivars. A cultivar with differing properties often becomes a new cultivar.With respect to the writing of fuchsia names, the following Manner of Writing has been applied in this CD ROM book .


NAME NOTATION ON THE FUCHSIA CD ROM
General- The name of the botanical genus Fuchsia is written in this CD-ROM Book in italics and starts with capital F.Botanical species names- Names of botanical species are composed of the genus name Fuchsia written in italics with thereafter the botanical species name written in italics (example: Fuchsia magellanica).- Names of botanical varieties within a species are composed of the genus name Fuchsia written in italics, with thereafter the botanical species name written in italics, and with therafter the varietal name written in italics (example: Fuchsia magellanica var. molinae); the word 'var.' itself is written in italics too, in this CD-ROM Book.Hybrid and cultivar names- Names of fuchsia hybrids and cultivars are written in a non-italics fashion.- The words in the names of hybrids and cultivars all start with a capital.- The complete hybrid or cultivar name is written between quotation marks (example: 'Cambridge Louie').Names of crossing-parents- With respect to the notation of crossing-parents in this book, the botanical species names as well as the cultivar names are written in a non-italics fashion.- The botanical species are preceeded by F. and start with a lower case character.- The words of the names of cultivars start with upper case characters and the cultiuvar names have not been placed within quotation marks.


GROETH TYPES
Fuchsias can grow naturally in a number of ways: upright, climbing, hanging, half-hanging, hanging/half-hanging, dwarf.UprightThe stems mainly grow in an upward direction so that the plant gets a bush shape. Examples are: 'Aintree', 'Ann H. Tripp'.ClimbingIn this case, the fuchsia stems attach themselves, or have been attached to a branch or to another type of support. Examples are: 'Lady Boothby'.HangingHere, the stems exhibit a natural tendency to hang down. Examples are: 'Berenvelt', 'Boy Marc'. An example of a limp hanger is: 'Wilma Versloot'.Half-hangingThe stems are too firm to be considered as a hanger while being too lax to be considered as upright. Examples are: 'Belle de Spa', 'Berba's Trio'.Hanging/half-hangingThis growth type is between hanging and half-hanging. An example is: 'Alverman'.DwarfThese plants remain small. Examples are: 'Baby Love', 'Baby Chang'.


PLANT SHAPES
The natural growth types of fuchsia plants can be used to train the plant into a desired shape. The following shapes can be achieved through pruning, pinching and cutting back:Bush: for this, plants exhibiting a upright growth type can be used. Bushes that do not branch spontaneously can be stimulated to bud through pinching out the growing tips at the end of the stems. In doing so, nice compact, bushy plants can be achieved. Examples are: 'Ann H. Tripp', 'Aintree'.(Half-)hanger: for this, plants exhibiting a (half-)hanging growth type can be used. Through pruning and pinching, a nice compact, bushy plant can be achieved. Examples are: 'Belle de Spa', 'Berba's Trio'.Standard: for this, plants exhibiting an upright growth type can be applied. Also, plants that are (half-)hanging and that are sufficiently supported can be used. Examples are: 'Celia Smedley', 'Checkerboard'.Pyramid: for this, plants exhibiting an upright growth type as well as supported (half-)hanging plants can be applied.Column: for this, plants exhibiting an upright growth type as well as supported (half-)hanging plants can be applied. An example is: 'Belle de Spa'.String/espalier: for this, plants exhibiting a upright growth type as well as supported (half)hanging plants can be applied.Besides through pruning and pinching, plant shapes can be regulated and influenced through cutting back.


FLOWER STRUCTURE
Most fuchsia flower parts are divided into four. Fuchsia flowers consist of the following (number of) parts: (1) tube ; (mostly 4) sepals ; (4-8) petals ; (8) stamens with (8) filaments and (8) anthers; (1) pistil with (1) style and (1) stigma ; (1) ovary.Fuchsia flowers possess the following features:Single flowerThe single flower consists of a tube, a calyx with mostly 4 sepals, and a corolla with 4 petals. Examples: 'Aalt Groothuis', 'Abigail', 'Alberttina'.Semi-double flowerThe semi-double flower consists of a tube, a calyx with mostly 4 sepals, and a corolla with 5-7 petals. Examples: 'Annie Buiting', 'Bea', 'Berba's Delight'.Double flowerThe double flower consists of a tube, a calyx with mostly 4 sepals, and a corolla with a multiple of 4 (at least 8) petals. Examples: 'Berba's Happiness', 'Beth Robley', 'Blue Gown', 'Blush of Dawn'.Pistil and stamensFuchsia flowers possesses 1 pistil en 8 equally long stamens. Sometimes 4 of the stamens are longer than the other 4. Sometimes 1 stamen is longer than the other 7.FasciateSome fuchsia flowers show deviations with respect to the number of sepals as compared to other fuchsia flowers, even of the same plant. Normally, there are 4 sepals, but there could be 3, 5 or 6 sepals present per flower. This is called fasciate. Examples are: 'Lady Patricia Mountbatten', 'Border Reiver', 'Chaos'. Additional fuchsia flower features are clarified on the continuation page.


LEAVES
Mostly, leaves are attached to the stems and branches of a plant. In the case of fuchsias the leaves can be attached to the stems as follows:- in pairs; the leaves are attached in pairs to the leaf buds of the stem; the leaf pairs of different leaf buds are positioned above one another in the same place.- crossed/in pairs; the leaves are attached in pairs to leaf buds; the leaf pair attached to the adjacent leaf bud is positioned perpendicular to the first pair.- triplicate (triphyllic); the leaves are in triplicate in the leaf bud.Leaves are important engine parts with respect to the growth of fuchsias. In the leaves, nutrients such as carbon dioxide, water, minerals and light are finally converted into plant cell material through the photosynthesis process with the aid of, among others, leaf-green (chlorophyll).Water vapor, carbon dioxide gas and water dissolved minerals are absorbed through the stomata (pores) in the skin of the leaf. These stomata are open if the air humidity is high enough. In dry air (low air humidity), the stomata are closed in order not to lose too much water by evaporation.Water and minerals are also taken up by the plant's root system and then forwarded from the roots to the leaves by the plant's internal liquids transportation system.In case of fuchsias possessing no leaves, or only a few leaves, the photosynthesis process to generate plant cell material can/will also take place in the stems.Leaves also can/will provide information about and insight in the condition of plants through (changing) leaf features .Leaves of different fuchsia types may possess different leaf shapes.


LEAF FEATURES
Leaves often provide insight in the condition of a plant. Leaves can provide information about the quality of plant care provided, and about the health condition and possible presence of diseases.Leaf colors changing from green to yellow may indicate that the plants receives too much or too little water.Black leaf tips may indicate overfertilization.Leaf colors changing from green to dark green and/or to brown may indicate too high light intensity, or may even indicate sunburn.Other black, brown, yellow, or white spots on the leaves may indicate health problems and may indicate the presence of pests and/or deseases.Irregularly or abnormally shaped leaves may indicate the presence of viruses.If seasonal circumstances become unfavourable (cold; dryness; less itensity and less hours of light per day), the plant starts to withdraw the remnant food from the leaves. The leaves turn yellow and start to drop.Leaves of different types of fuchsias may possess different leaf shapes and may possess different characteristics.


LEAF SHAPES
All fuchsias possess singular feather type veining in the leaves. The size and shape of the leaves of the various species, hybrids and cultivars may differ strongly (e.g. serrated leaves as in 'Coachman').Fuchsias with small, leathery leaves have adapted themselves to circumstances with periods of full, intense sunshine and low relative humidity (drought). Plants with large, sappy leaves are more accustomed to shadow and a high relative humidity.Fuchsia leaves that are exhibitied in nature to a lot of sunshine have acquired a natural protection in the form of reddish pigments such as anthocyanine that diminishes the harmful influence of ultraviolet radiation. An example is F. triphylla and the therefrom resulting hybrids and cultivars that mostly possess reddish leaves.Pigments are generated by sunlight. In the dark winter period and close therafter plants do not have a lot of protecting pigments available. Therefore, in the spring, fuchsias have to adapt gradually to the increasing sunlight intensity. Exposing unprotected plant suddenly to a too high intensity of sunlight may cause sunburn.Owing to deviations in the leaf-green (chlorophyll) production and the leaf-green distributionover the laef surface, (gold)yellow or yellow-white patterns (absence of leaf-green) may arise. Examples are 'Golden Marinka' (yellow-green pattern in the leave), 'Golden La Campanella' (white-green pattern) and 'Igloo Maid' (even yellow-green). Leaf-green deficient plants will grow slower. Mutants without leaf-green will die if the starch supply of the seed has finishes after seed germination.Some fuchsias are hairy as a protection against intense sunlight and drying-out.


ROOTS
Roots are very important for fuchsias. They provide support for the plant by means of anchoring the plant in the soil. In addition, roots take care for the uptake of nutrients such as water and minerals from the soil. The plant saps containing the nutrients are transported, by means of the internal transport system of the plant, from the roots to the rest of the plant such as the stems and leaves.The fuchsia root system consists of main roots, with finer, branched, hairy roots attached to them. These fine white roots may not suffocate from wet, and also may not completely dry out. The thicker roots parts serve as food storage.To prevent suffocation of the fine white roots by wet, they need fresh air. Therefore, fuchsia potting medum must be airy and well drained. The oxygen in the air assists in preventing mould and other undesired affects to the root system. The potting medium should never be too solid, or too dense, or not being airy.To prevent drying out and die off of the fine white roots, they need a high relative air humidity. Therefore, the potting medium may not be too course, or too airy. If the medium becomes too dry, growth and flowering will stop. Even during overwintering fuchsia plant parts and roots may not dry out completely.in the case of cultivated fuchsias, the potting medium must be optimally adapted to the requirements of the fuchsia roots. Take a well balanced potting medium that is airy enough to allow air circulation around the roots, but also fine enough to hold sufficient water. Potassium in fertilizer takes care for a healthy root system. However, too much salts in the potting medium, withdraws water from the roots.Besides potting soil, (semi-)water-culture exists as a fuchsia growth medium.


HEALTH
An essential part of fuchsia care is carefully looking at the plant's health. The fuchsia's condition should be continuously monitored and regularly checked for signs of diseases in order to keep the fuchsia healthy, thereby supporting good growing and blooming.Several threats (diseases) exist that endanger the fuchsia's health. These threats are, among others:PESTSPests are animals or insects that cause damage to plants. Pests can be treated chemically or by biological means. Biological fighting methods might be preferred from an environmental point of view.DISEASESVarious forms of lower organisms such as fungi, bacteria and viruses can cause diseases. Fungi and bacteria can be treated with fungicides and bactericides (germicides), respectively. Diseases caused by viruses cannot be cured.ABIOTIC ILLNESSESAbiotic illnesses are not caused by living organisms, but are due to maltreatment. Examples of maltreatment are irregular watering, over- or under-fertilizing, lack of or too much light, presence of other endangering plants, etc.One must be careful with the application of chemical products in fighting pests, diseases or abiotic illnesses. Always follow the suppliers' or manufacturers' instructions with respect to the application of chemicals. See a physician in case of an accident during application. The use of certain chemicals may be prohibited in certain states. Contact local agricultural or other authorities about this issue.


CUTTING BACK / PINCHING / PRUNING
By cutting back, pruning and pinching fuchsias can be given and kept in certain shapes. The next plant shapes are, among others, possible: bush, (half-)hanger, standard, pyramid, string, column.Also, cutting back is important for the yearly maintenance of plants.Fuchsias that have become too dense may give less flowers. Timely pruning can prevent the plants of growing too dense thus preserving the ability to ample flowering.Plants that have become shapeless over the years or have become barren on the lower parts of the stem and lower branches, may become reshaped and reactivated to grow by pruning and pinching. After pruning and pinching, the leaf buds will sprout again and will form shoots. Those shoots can be further regulated by additional pruning and pinching.In the autumn, before overwintering the fuchsias should be cut back in order to remove the soft parts of the plants that have not yet become woody. Also, the leaves are to be removed. Because, after leaf removal from the plants, no plant sap transport takes place anymore, the soil ball must be dried-up first, otherwise root rot may occur.Cutting back is not strictly necessary for the plants to survive, but saves space during overwintering. Cuttings and young plants that contain little or no woody material, should not be cut back; they are only to be cut back partly (1/3). In addition, the leaves should remain. They are not to be dried-out in the winter because otherwise the soft parts may die off.


OVERWINTERING
In our regoins, overwintering serves for the survival of non-winter hardy fuchsias. The plants then have their period of rest.Cuttings and young plants with a few or no woody parts are placed inside and cut back by only 1/3. The leaves are left on the plant. These fuchsias overwinter at 10-15 ºC. They get a little water and sufficient light to keep the leaves green.Larger plants possessing more woody parts should first be encouraged to become stronger before winter. This can be achieved by supplying sufficient potassium, after August, in order to improve ripening of the wood. Also, give only a small amount of water, and move plants inside before the first night-frost.By cutting back the non-woody parts and the removal of leaves, a significant saving of space can be achieved. Cutting back is strictly necessary for overwintering. Leave at least 2 leaf buds per stem after cutting back.Before cutting back and removing leaves, the root-pods should be dry. Cut back/leaf removed plants do not exhibit plant sap transport anymore from the pot-clod to the plant. A wet pot-clod may, therefore, cause root rot.Check the root ball for pests and remove them before overwintering. Spray with a remedy, if necessary.Store the plants in a cool (5-10 ºC) place, in the dark and slightly moist, or clamp them.By cutting back, pruning and pinching fuchsias can be given and kept in certain shapes. The next plant shapes are, among others, possible: bush, (half-)hanger, standard, pyramid, espalier, column.


Above are a few examples of fuchsia cd rom book chapters that cover a variety of fuchsia aspects.
Please, note that the hot words that (on the Fuchsia CD ROM) will pop up additional texts and/or additional photos to enlighten the text of the chapter(s), are not active on this web page. Of course, they are active on the Fuchsia CD ROM itself.






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